As we all know, China is a typical country with many people, less land, and scarce freshwater resources. The per capita arable land area in China is only 1.5 mu, which is less than 1/2 of the world average. Per capita freshwater resources are only 2,300 cubic meters, which is only 1/4 of the world average. The regional distribution of water and soil resources is seriously out of balance, and the problems of waterlessness and waterlessness are prominent. In particular, overexploitation of groundwater in the North China Plain has caused serious ecological problems. Under this kind of resource endowment in China, how to intensively, efficiently, and sustainably use agricultural resources is a major issue that must be studied in depth in the development of modern agriculture.
From the perspective of exploration in various parts of China in recent years, the development of facility agriculture has accelerated the development of traditional extensive agricultural production methods characterized by the input-driven growth of resource factors, and has transformed into an efficient, sustainable and sustainable modern agricultural production method. Important strategic significance. Facilities agriculture has a significant role in improving land productivity and resource utilization, ensuring balanced supply of live agricultural products throughout the year, increasing agricultural labor productivity, promoting the integration of rural secondary and tertiary industries, and stimulating farmers to increase employment. However, compared with countries such as Japan, Israel, and the Netherlands where facility agriculture is developed, China’s facility agriculture at the current stage has significant gaps in terms of equipment level, service support, business model, and technological innovation. In the next stage, we need to strengthen the support from the aspects of strengthening the strategic position of facility agriculture, strengthening the support of the development of facility agriculture, and playing the role of leading enterprises in stimulating ties, so as to promote the transformation and upgrading of China's facility agriculture, improve quality and efficiency, and promote China's facilities. Big agricultural countries are changing to building a strong country in agriculture(polypropylene non woven manufacturer
Fristly. It is of great significance to develop facility agriculture under the condition of China's resource endowments.
Facility agriculture is the comprehensive use of modern biology, engineering and information technology to improve the local environment, providing relatively controlled temperature, humidity, light, water and fertilizer and air and other environmental conditions for animal and plant production, with fast-growing, high-yield, high-quality, high-efficiency and sustainable characteristics. Modern agricultural production methods. From the development practice of our country in recent years, the development of facility agriculture under this kind of resource endowment in China has the following important significance.
(A) The development of facility agriculture is conducive to the intensive use of agricultural resources
Over the past 30 years, a prominent feature of China’s agricultural production is that the intensive input of chemical inputs such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides and excessive consumption of water and soil resources have driven output growth, the resource dependence of agricultural production is more significant, and the efficiency of agricultural resource utilization Lower. In 2013, the application of chemical fertilizer per unit area in China reached 437 kg/ha, which was 1.9 times the internationally recognized upper limit of chemical fertilizer application safety of 225 kg/ha. The effective water use coefficient of farmland irrigation in China is only 0.51, which is equivalent to about 70% of the developed countries.
(B) The development of facility agriculture will help increase the annual balanced supply of fresh agricultural products.
Constrained by the lack of water resources and the large temperature difference between day and night, for a long time in China's high-altitude areas, the supply of vegetables and fruits and their types of products are insufficient. In recent years, with the large-scale promotion of solar greenhouses, plastic greenhouses and other facilities for horticulture in these areas, the shortage of vegetables and fruits and the limited variety of vegetables in winter have been greatly improved, which has effectively promoted the local “vegetable baskets” and “fruit trays”. The balanced supply of products has ensured the diversity of people's consumption of fruits and vegetables(China polypropylene spun bonded non woven supplier
(C) Development of Facility Agriculture is conducive to Promoting the Integration of Rural Industries and Promoting the Increase of Farmers' Employment
Traditionally, a typical feature of China's agricultural production is the interruption of farming and field care. Farmers have more surplus labor time, and the average productivity of agricultural labor is lower. Since agricultural products are usually sold only through wholesalers, the division of production and circulation makes it possible to obtain a meagre production income for agricultural products, and the overall agricultural added value is relatively low. The development of facility agriculture is to a certain extent conducive to improving the above situation. On the one hand, facility agriculture is a type of “all-season” production and supply of agriculture, and facilities agriculture is developing rapidly. The agricultural labor force can be relatively well-balanced and fully utilized throughout the year.
Secondly, the outstanding problems in the development of China's facility agriculture(China spun bonded non woven company
According to statistics, in 2014, the area of horticultural facilities in China was as high as 61 million mu and the total area and total output ranked first in the world. From this point of view alone, China is already a big country in the world of facility agriculture. However, judging from the technical level, product system, factor support, service support, and technological innovation of facility agriculture, China still has a small distance compared with the advanced countries of facility agriculture, and it is still relatively large compared with the goal of building a strong country of facility agriculture. gap.
(A) In terms of equipment technology, simple technology is the mainstay, and multi-factor and multi-factor active environmental control technology is still in the stage of introduction, exploration and start-up.
At present, the main facilities for horticulture in China are mainly small and medium arch sheds, plastic greenhouses and ordinary solar greenhouses. On the whole, the equipment for China's facility agriculture is still in the stage of simple technology. The medium and small arch sheds and plastic sheds that dominate the country have only simple functions such as heat preservation and rain protection. In most regions, the solar greenhouse has a simple structure, low environmental control capability, poor anti-aging properties of the covering materials, short service life, and the lack of light and heat control and test equipment in the greenhouse. It basically remains in the single-factor qualitative adjustment control stage. The active environmental control, multi-dimensional control and fine control, and intelligent control that are widely used in international advanced facilities agriculture are still in the stage of introduction, exploration and start-up in China. Because China’s facility agriculture is dominated by the decentralized management of small-scale farmers, objectively, the technologies adopted in China’s facility agriculture are mostly simple technologies that are easy to promote, easy to imitate, and strongly follow-up, resulting in the lock-in of research and development of facility agricultural equipment at a low level. The level of end, high-end technology and equipment are relatively lack of independent intellectual property rights.
(B) In terms of product system, the planting variety is relatively single and the added value is not high. The continuous cropping phenomenon is serious and is not conducive to the control of pests and diseases.
At present, the production varieties of China's facility agriculture are relatively single, and the large-scale planting is mainly concentrated in conventional crops such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers. Relatively high value-added spices, medicinal plants, edible fungi, and ornamental plants are less cultivated. According to the survey, in 2012, China’s facility horticulture accounted for about 95% of the facilities’ vegetables, and the facilities with high added value were only about 2%. In addition to the facility's monomer efficiency is significantly lower than that of foreign facility agriculture, in addition, the modern production facility agriculture is different from the production methods of high-precision control to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides. At this stage, China's small-scale, decentralized facilities and agricultural production methods are still extensive and still Relying on the intensive input of fertilizers and pesticides to drive output growth is contrary to the original intention of the development of facility agriculture.
(C) In terms of factor support, manpower is still the most important input factor, the overall quality of labor force is not high, and the proportion of machinery and equipment is low, although it is different from the technological route of “high input and high output” of developed countries in facilities agriculture. The development of China's facility agriculture follows the path of “low investment and low energy consumption”, but the lack of support for advanced production factors is still an obvious shortcoming for China’s current agricultural development. First, human labor is still the most important input factor, and the labor input for daily farming is still relatively large. According to the survey, the per capita management area of greenhouses in China is only 1/5 or even lower in developed countries such as Japan. Second, China's facility agriculture is mainly for decentralized farmers. With the continuous transfer of rural young and middle-aged laborers to the secondary and tertiary industries, there is a long way to go before the quantitative index management requirements for the cultivation of cultivated plants and modern facilities. Third, due to the small and medium sized arch sheds and plastic greenhouses, the operating space of China's facility agriculture is generally small, and it is inconvenient for mechanical operation. In addition, the development of small-scale agricultural machinery suitable for small and medium sized arch sheds and plastic sheds lags behind. China's facility agricultural machinery and equipment use The rate is lower. According to statistics, at present, the level of mechanization of China's facility agriculture is less than 30%, which is only about half of the country's major crops and the comprehensive mechanization level.